This calculator is based on the VDI 2230 guideline. In this guideline the torque required it is defined by the following expression:

Where

- $P$ : pitch of the thread in milimeters; it has been obtained from ASME B1.1-2003 (Unified Inch Screw Threads)
- $\mu_G$ is the coefficient of friction in the thread (in this case we have considered $\mu_G$ and $\mu_K$ equal and obtained from UNE 17-108-81)
- $\mu_K$ is the coefficient of friction in screw head (in this case we have considered $\mu_G$ and $\mu_K$ equal and obtained from UNE 17-108-81)
- $d_2$ pitch diameter of the bolt head in mm; it has been obtained from ASME B1.1-2003 (Unified Inch Screw Threads)
- $D_{Km}$ Effective diameter for the friction moment at the bolt head or or nut bearing area and it is defined by the following expression
- $D_{Ki}$ is the inside diameter of the bearing area,we have considered the same as $d_2$ and it has been obtained from ASME B1.1-2003 (Unified Inch Screw Threads)
- $F_{Mzul}$ Permissible assembly preload defined by the following expressions
- $\nu$: utilization fator of yield point stress (limit of full plasticization of th cross section at risk)durin tightening. It is defined by user in the proof load percentage
- $R_{p0,2}$ 0,2% proof strength of the bolt according to DIN EN ISO 898-1; in this case we have used the values of proof load from the standards SAE and ASTM and converted to the proper units $N/{mm}^2$
- $A_0$ Appropriate minimum cross sectional area of the bolt
- $d_2$ pitch diameter of the bolt head in mm; it has been obtained from ASME B1.1-2003 (Unified Inch Screw Threads)
- $d_0$ diameter at the relevant smallest cross section of the bolt; from the ASME B1.1-2003 (Unified Inch Screw Threads; Minor Diameter)

Where

Where

$Note 1:$ In the case that the geometry standard it is unknown then the progrma assigns to the Dkm value the average of several screw standards. It is not so significant in the end result.

$Note 2:$ In the case of do not know the constact surfaces material the calculator willa assign a friction coefficient of 0,1 (($\mu$) is 0,1)

Another function is to help to check the maintainability. If you introduce the screw standard and thread size you will have the link to the recommended 3D models tools in order to check the required space to apply torque and to remove the screw. This will help to check that the design is easy to mantain and prevent future redesign process during the assembly. You only have to insert the tool in your 3D model and you will see that the bolt head clearance for the wrench, spanner or socket is enough.

1) Enter thread diameter nominal value in section **Thread Size**. Click on info button for more info

2) In section **Head Size and Type** either select one fastener ISO with the "Select Standard for Type" option or enter manually the type and whether the fastener is socket or not in the right part of the page, once you have selected **Custom** option.

3) Enter strength class of the fastener. Click on info button for more info

4) In section **Coefficient of Friction** either select one lubrication condition (faster and surface combination) with the "Select Friction condition" option or enter manually or let the default value in the right part of the page, once you have selected **Unknown** option.

5) Click on button calculate, and the calculated torque will appear below.

The strength class in steel bolts is marked at it is shown in the following figures:

From the strength class and the thread diameter value it will be calculated based on SAE J429 or ASTM the value of $R_{p0,2}$ min used in formula specified below

SAE J429 covers the mechanical and material requirements for inch series fasteners used in automotive and related industries in sizes to 1 to ½" inclusive.

The ASTM A307 specification covers carbon steel.Bolts manufactured under this specification are very similar to the commonly used specification SAE Grade 2. Grade A are general bolts , and grade B are used fpr heavy hex bolts and rods

ASTM A325 covers heavy hex structural bolts for bolts that range from ½ to 1-½ in diameter

ASTM A449 covers headed bolts, rods, and anchor bolts in diameters ranging from ¼" through 3" inclusive

The ASTM A354 specification covers the chemical and mechanical requirements of quenched and tempered alloy steel bolts, studs, and other externally threaded fasteners 4" and under in diameter.

The standard designation for a UTS thread is a number indicating the nominal (major) diameter of the thread in inches. For diameters smaller than ¼ inch, the diameter is indicated by an integer number defined in the standard as follow:

- #0 = 0.0600
- #1 = 0.0730
- #2= 0.0860
- #3 = 0.0990
- #4 = 0.1120
- #5 = 0.1120
- #6 = 0.1380
- #8 = 0.1640
- #10 = 0.1900
- #12 = 0.2160

Major diameter is defined as:

The thread diameter allows us to calculate based on the UTS Standard the pitch(P),d2 and d0(that is d3 in the image) values of the torque formula. Image of such values

Mean diameter of bearing face of bolt head or nut relevant for frictional torque
$$D_{km}=\frac{d_w+D_{a}}{2}$$
Therefore in above formula $$D_w$$ is the maximum diameter of friction surface of bolt head and $$D_a$$ is the minimum diameter of friction surface of bolt head

This values are automatically loaded based on iso and metric thread size, what at the same time give us the head and the shape needed for calculation.